Moil under the first classification it is ordinarily greatest degree of satisfaction, if used for desirable to specify the cheapest mate- all purposes. This has been definitely prov- rial available; however when considering ed by actual experience and, therefore, it installations that fall into the second classi- is necessary to select the metal that will fication the problem of selecting the mate- withstand the operating conditions suc- rials to be specified is of paramount cessfully. Intelligent selection of the proper importance. This fact is recognized by both material implies on the part of the engineer executives and engineers since it has such a thorough understanding of the corrosive a direct bearing on maintenance and re- conditions encountered and a good work- pair charges. The piping system in an industrial plant is an excellent example of one type instal- lation where it is desirable to maintain the cost per year of service at as low a figure as possible. In most plants the piping sys- tem has an important bearing on operat- ing efficiency and maintenance charges ing knowledge of the relative durability of the metals available. Today the metals most commonly used in modern construction work are steel and wrought iron. It is not the purpose of this discussion to give the technical details re- garding the chemical and physical make- up and data on the relative durability of because failures in pipe lines may cause these material& because information of delays in production and frequently neces- sitate expensive replacements. When we consider that the average plant piping sys- that type would be of interest primarily to technicians only. However, it should be stated that wrought tern involves a great variety of services iron differs both chemically and physically such as water lines, heating lines, power from all other metals. It is the oldest of all system piping, lines handling process solu- the ferrous metals and its most outstanding tions, gas and air lines, refrigeration system characteristics are (1) resistance to corro- piping and numerous others, and that in sion, and (2) resistance to fatigue failure each of these services the pipe is subjected caused by shock or constant vibration. to a different set of corrosive conditions, it These characteristics make wrought iron a highly desirable metal for a wide variety of uses in industry where durability or long is obvious that for the most economical in- stallation the piping material specified must be selected on the basis of its durability or life under severe conditions is an important lasting qualities, rather than on the basis of its first or warehouse floor cost. consideration. For almost a quarter of a century prior With the wide variation in corrosive con- to 1930, pipe was the principal wrought iron ditions normally found in actual service, it product available in commercial quantities. bvious However, since the development and instat- ed to serve most economically and with the lation of modern manufacturing facilities by 2 A. M. Byers Company, wrought iron plates, alone. Therefore, it is apparent that where sheets, structurals and numerous other the cost of materials under consideration products have been reintroduced to the for use in construction or maintenance work market on a commercial basis. During the past five years, wrought iron products have come into use for a greater number of applications in all branches of industry than ever before. This is attributed partly to the fact that the economy of speci- fying wrought iron has been established is but a fraction of the initial or replacement cost of the entire installation, then the rela- tive durability of those materials assumes the position of major importance in making the final decision as to which one will be used. Those who are interested in obtaining through its use in a large number of services detailed information on some specific ap- over a long period of years. And, after all, plication or applications for wrought iron actual service over a long period of time products may secure it by writing direct to provides the only reliable indication of the the Engineering Service Department, A. M. durability of any metal — manufacturers' Byers Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. That de- claims and accelerated test data notwith- partment serves as a clearing house for standing. Another factor that has a direct bear- ing on the constantly broadening use of wrought iron products is the comparatively small increase in first or initial cost of a wrought iron installation over that of a similar installation using the cheapest ma- terial available. In some instances when materials are being considered, the costs of those materials on the warehouse floor are compared and the decision as to which one will be used is made on that basis. information on wrought iron products and their applications to problems involving corrosion, fatigue, current design trends, and fabrication. On certain of the services for which there has been a great demand for detailed data regarding the use of wrought iron the necessary information has been published in report form. For other services, reports are prepared at the time the request is made in order to meet the individual requirements. A. M. Byers Company has been a leading Obviously, such a comparison does not give producer of the highest quality wrought iron a true picture of relative costs because in products for more than 70 years. During that either case the fixed charges, which include time, it is only natural that we should have transportation, labor and overhead, must developed a sound working knowledge of be added to the cost of material before the material and its applications in the the installation is completed and ready to various branches of industry. That knowl- operate. These added costs for fabrication edge is made available, without charge, to and installation frequently amount to as specifiers and users of materials through much as, or more than the cost of material the Engineering Service Department. 3 Wrought iron floor plates on a Western Maryland Railroad bridge at Thurmont, Maryland. \ v] >! E "• All water lines and the gas, oil, and air lines under concrete at this service station in New Orleans, Louisiana, were installed using wrought iron pipe. Blow case constructed of wrought iron plates and rivets for the Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Douglas, Arizona. Installing wrought iron pipe lor the plumbing and heating systems in a large commercial building. Locomotive watering troughs, built of wrought iron, on the main line oi the New York Central Railroad at Silver Creek. New York. Semi-circular perforated wrought iron drain line installed a short time ago in the Old Union Tunnel of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Baltimore. The weep pipes also are wrought iron. 4 Towing a 1000-foot wrought iron sewer outfall line out to sea at Loch Arbour, N. J. This 12" line is subjected to corrosion from both salt water and sewage. Wrought iron bands on fer- menting tanks at the Du- quesne Brewing Company plant, Pittsburgh. A wood tank is no better than the bands which hold it to- gether. Wrought iron bands have proved their dura- bility. Heating coils in sewage sludge digestion tanks at the Peoria, Illinois, Sewage Treatment Plant. Sewage is highly corrosive and wrought iron is used for many services in treatment and disposal work. Wrought iron conduit in the lighting system on the new Pittsburgh-Homestead High Level Bridge. Wrought iron pipe is used generally for conduit installations subject to corrosion. Installing wrought iron O.D. tubes in an air pre- heater at a large power plant in Chicago. 5 Flag poles, fabricated from wrought iron pipe, in front of the Archives Bidg., Washington, D. C. Cargo lines oi wrought iron pipe on the deck of the "New Haven Socony" — one of the three tankers placed in service a short time ago by the Standard-Vacuum Transportation Company. Wrought iron was used on these tankers for eighteen other piping services and for the rudder frames, arms and stocks, and the stern frames. Wrought Iron coal bunker on the ferry boat "Meadville" operated in New York harbor by the Erie Railroad Com- pany. The smoke box, uptake, stack, and many of the piping services on this vessel are also of wrought iron. Water back line of 5" wrought iron pipe in the wall of a boiler fire box at the Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad roundhouse, Chicago. Here the pipe must withstand high temperatures as well as corrosion. 6 The wood hull of this U. S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker is sheathed with wrought iron to provide additional strength and durability. f Forging a locomotive draw-bar from wrought iron at the Conneaut, Ohio, shops of York, Chicago <& St. Louis Railroad. Draw-bars are subject to heavy shocks and iron is used to withstand the fatigue effects that result. the New wrought 7 Hand r g> c I blast plate6. both constructed oi wrought •.« •. Sandy Wall Viaduct. Fort Worth Texas. a mportant requirement ior f Wrought iron heating coils in syrup tank cars owned by the Corn Products Refining Company. Brine coils of wrought iron pipe aboard one of the ships of the "Great White Fleet." in a cold storage room United Fruit Company's Wrought iron piping on the U, S. Coast Guard Cutter "Hud- son." Wrought iron pipe is used extensively on board ships because in most services corrosion failures must be avoided. The main deck and berth deck of this cutter are also of wrought iron. Coarse Screen made of wrought iron bars installed at The Butler, Missouri, Sewage Disposal Plant. Screens are subjected to the corrosive ac- tion of raw sewage. Perforated debris buckets fabricated by welding from wrought iron plates for use at storm sewer inlets in Pittsburgh. Pa. 9 All water lines in the new swimming pool North Park. Allegheny County. Pa., are oi wrought ron pi;-- Light No. 7 in the main channel at Miami. Florida, constructed of wrought iron to withstand salt water cor- rosion. Outdoor relay cabinet built oi wrought iron plates at the West Penn Power Com- pany's Windsor Powi i Station. Beech Bottom. W. Va. An excessive amount ot smoke in the air makes corrosive con ditions very severe at this station. Ill <:. I mi II I »•• ' Ml iii mi i» it -r ill II II II II It H !i : ii " "9! i ii > t Water turbine whtel i t with wrougM non ruimern loi a lary* paper mpany. *l|| iii'iiiin M ii ! Hi "•H el a pmMMt lot r Iii dowMMrii ag m )' »TP» iCfS ■ mi Pa ■ an f-xceUoni t | V» ough on old warier; fire MPP>7 drainage •turn liao*. re was a <he C t O wood plant ag cy aba. Mick. Boiler washing system piping of wrought iron in the engine house at the Markham yards oi the Illinois Central Railroad. Wrought iron roofing, siding, Milwaukee Harbor Commission Milwaukee Harbor. and ventilators on the Transit Shed No. 1 in > i The New York Central Railroad's new passenger train 'Mercury." Wrought iron pipe is used in both the locomotive and the coaches. 11 Sand-drying coils ol wrought iron pipe at the Ottawa Silica Company plant, Ottawa, Illinois. Both abrasion and cor- rosion influence service liie in this application. Sprinkler piping of wrought iron in the aeration basin at the Hempstead Water Works, Hempstead, Long Island. Sheave wheel, 7' diameter, fabricated with wrought iron spokes for the Consolidation Coal Company, Fairmont, West Virginia. The CharleB Deering Memorial Library, Northwestern Un versity, Evanston. Illinois. The soil, waste, and vent lines, and the downspouts are wrought iron. 12 The San Francisco War Memorial Buildings in which wrought iron was installed lor the corrosive piping services. Steam coils fabricated from wrought iron pipe installed in a horizontal vulcanizer built for Hodgman Rubber Co.. Framingham. Mass. > Engine truck equalizers forged from wrought iron. This is another railroad service where the fatigue resistance of wrought iron is important. Subway type transformer tanks built of wrought iron plates and pipe for install' tion at Lock <& Dam No. 20. Canton Mo. Floor drainage lines or downspouts of wrought iron pipe on the new Intercity Viaduct. Kansas Cit The blast plates, collection boxes on downspouts, and curb drain gratings are also wrought iron. 13 Wrought iron pipe downspouts on train sheds at the & North Western Railway Suburban Passenger Evanston, Illinois. Chicago Station, The towboat "Resolute" designed by Gielow, Inc.. and built recently for the Providence Steamship Company. The entire hull of this tug was fabricated from wrought iron plates, using welded construction. Wrought iron has again come into general use for hulls, particularly on vessels designed to stand up under hard usage over a long period of years. - Pontoon pipe used in dredging operations. Wrought iron pipe is employed ior installations of this type because, among the softer ferrous metals, it has exhibited a high resistance to abrasion. Storm warning tower constructed of wrought iron structurals at the U. S. Weather Bureau Station, San Juan. Porto Rico. Atmospheric corrosion senously affects metals in the tropics and for that reason wrought iron was used. Fire protection sheets cf wrought iron on Pennsylvania Rail- road Bridge No. 31.31 at Downingtown, Pa. Sheets used for fire protection must be durable in order to be effective over a period of years. 14 One of the heat exchangers, equipped with wrought iron O.D. tubes and wrought iron tube sheets, installed recently at the plant of Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co., Great Works, Maine. ■Jw 4 Oil lease tanks constructed of galvanized wrought iron sheets in service on the Republic Natural Gas Company's Bloomer Lease, Bloomer Pool, in Kansas. Hundreds of wrought iron lease tanks have been installed recently in many fields where corrosive sour crude oils are produced. The Stevens Hotel in Chicago. Hundreds of tons of wrought iron pipe are in service in this building. 15 Four wrought iron furnace stacks, ranging from 100' to 150' high, erected recently at the Shell Petroleum Corporation's Deer Park Refinery, Houston. Texas. Wrought iron stacks are now used in all branches oi industry to obtain longer service life. 16 Wrought iron plates being installed between the ties and the top flanges of the steel girders on a Missouri Pacific Railroad bridge to protect the steel against the effect of brine drippings from refrigerator cars. Water gas generator shell constructed of wrought iron at the Public Service Electric & Gas Co., Kearny, N. J. ■&. The hoppers on these coal larries in the boiler house at the Pekin, Illinois, plant of Corn Products Refining Company are constructed of wrought iron. The twelve stoker hoppers, into which the larries discharge, are also of wrought iron. Two wrought iron oil lines being laid across the Houston Ship Channel by one of the pipe line companies. At loca- tions such as this, the pipe is frequently subjected to ab- normal corrosion and wrought iron is commonly installed. 17 Co., condensers piped with wrought iron on the U. S. Army Transport "Republic". Salt water is used for cooling the condensers. Wrought iron siding sheets used as replacements on New York Dock Company's Pier No. 17, Brooklyn. 9 Spacer straps and concrete slab floor supports on one of the new Florida Keys Bridges. These are thin sections and wrought iron is used because the metal is exposed to salt water spray and salt air. The river towboat "Ranger" owned by the Pittsburgh Coal Company. Wrought iron was installed recently on this boat for re-enforcing straps on the pitman rods, boiler water piping, and pipe straps. Welding wrought iron plates to the bottom flanges of roof beams in a tunnel on the New York Central Railroad near Oswego. N. Y. The wrought iron serves the double purpose of strengthening the beams and protecting them against corrosive blasts from locomotives. Installing wrought iron O.D. tubes in a new shell and tube ammonia condenser built for Anheuser-Busch Company, St. Louis. Wrought iron tubes are now used generally for this service because condenser cooling waters are usually very corrosive. 18 :enfi _* ■■ D ■ ■: tSESfiSl ■ i EHOE h 1929 -:n ^Sy^^ySgv v^ ~ A JA^ -> nTTTTi ! rr \ One of the ornamental wrought Institute, Dearborn, Michigan iron entrance Here, again, gates to Greenfield Village, The Edison - durability and beauty are combined. I fas • ■ * _> ,* * Launching the "William A. Thompson", one of the new dredges completed spring, 1937, for the U. S. Engineers. This vessel and its sister ship, the "Rock Island", both have wrought iron hulls. Also, wrought iron pipe is installed in many of the piping services. Coal pocket in the tender of one of the ten new steam loco- motives recently built for the New York. New Haven <£ Hartford Railroad. Wrought iron plates were used for the coal pockets and for baffle plates. Blow-off lines of wrought iron pipe in the Chicago round- house of the Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad. Hot water tank of wrought iron in a large apartment house in New York City. Tanks of this type are subjected to severe corrosion, hence the desirability of using wrought iron. 19 ^■I^^^M ■ Wrought iron pipe in one of the operating galleries at The Milwaukee Sewage Treatment Plant. Wrought iron pipe used for— branch connections between air headers and diffuser-plate containers in aeration tanks; air supply lines in mixing, feed, mixed liquor, and return sludge channels; downspouts; concealed heating returns; and railings. Piping in the heating plant of the New York. New Haven <£ Hartford Railroad at Cedar Hill, Connecticut. Wrought iron pipe is installed in many corrosive services and the stack and breeching are built of wrought iron plates. Ballast deck of wrought iron plates being installed on the Missouri Pacific Railroad's new bridge over Ivory Avenue in St. Louis. Wrought iron has come into general use for bridge decks on many large railroads. Welded wrought iron surge tank in the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company Building, San Antonio, Texas. The house tank and a large portion of the piping in this building are also of wrought iron. 24' O.D. wTOugh ron water main on the South Tenth Street Bridge. Pittsburgh. Wrought iron is commonly used for in- stallations oi this type because of its resistance to the effects of vibration and corrc m. Smokejack constructed of wrought iron in the Western Avenue Roundhouse of the Chicago. Milwau*" St. Paul 6 Pacific Railroad, Chicago. The smoke duct into which the jack empties is also of wrought iron. 20 > Laying 22.500 feet of J and 4 wTough iron condu carry high tension lines of the New York Central Rail particular: mpor em Ship Canal to Here d liry is — — . • 21 ■ Air brake piping of wrought iron on one of the hopper cars recently built by the Norfolk <£ Western Railway Company. Failures of air brake lines, due to fatigue, are dangerous — hence the extensive use of wrought iron lor this service. ^ U ii/////>^ Cau: oda tanks of wrought iron at the Coney Island Sewage Treatment Plant. Brooklyn. New York. These tanks re of all-welded construction. Cooling coils of wrought iron pipe in the freezing room at Abbott's Dairies, Inc.. Philadelphia. nace smoke pipe made of wrought iron sheets in servic in a Chicago building. Installing a wrought iron fuel oil tank underground dl a large Pittsburgh manufacturing plant. Wrought iron is desirable for this type service because of its high resistance to soil corrosion. 22 Wrought iron key plates used at the joints in the new concrete intercepting sewer built by the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District. Wrought iron is desirable for such services as key plates and concrete stops because the material is not accessible for repairs after installation. Steps for railroad passenger cars on the Norfolk Southern Railroad. The sides of the steps are of "wrought iron sheets. Blast main equipment fabricated from wrought iron plates for a large industrial plant. Main engine discharge line of wrought iron pipe on the Motorship "Santa Barbara" owned by the Grace Line. Milk can washer constructed of wrought iron sheets in service at the Nestle's Milk Products Company plant, Sunbury, Ohio. I Pier protection plates of wrought iron on concrete approach Pier 7-E of the Pennsylvania Railroad Draw Bridge No. 4.22 over the Passaic River. Wrought iron plates are now used extensively to protect concrete piers against deterioration in both fresh and salt water. 23 Water storage tank, of 1.000,000 gallons' capacity, fabricated from wrought iron plates at the New England plant of a large manufacturer of photographic supplies. An uninterrupted supply of pure water is absolutely necessary at this plant. Wrought iron pipe is used on locomotives be juse it re caused by vibration, and corrosion. both fatigue. Wrought iron pipe in the new beef slaugh er house built by Armour 6 Company, in Chicago. 24 lacking -wrought iron conduit underground to carry traffic signal light cable. This installation was made at Bigelow Boule- vard and Craig Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-tight bulkheads, fabricated from wrought iron sheets and angles, on one of the patrol boats built in 1936 for the U, S. Coast Guard. The stack, bridge enclosure, and wearing strips were also of wrought iron. Attemperator coils fabricated from wrought iron pipe for Blatz Brewing Company, Milwaukee. Wrought iron pipe being installed in a water well at the plant Brewing Company, Milwaukee. Well piping must be durable corrosion failures are not only difficult to repair, but may permit of the water supply. of Miller because pollution 25 Tree g oi « •o con nt on .%. Th hoy 01 tr th< Coal elevator casing of wrought iron at The American Oak Leather Com- pany plant, Louisville. Ky. Sp ikler tyitcm piping ol wroughl on in the Polk Street Warehouse o( th Pennsylvania Railroad. Chicago. The new floral conservatory, known as the Jewel Box", in Forest Park. St. Louis. The U-bar uprights that carry the glass frames, and the heating system piping are wrought iron. Gas engine jacket water-cooling coils of wrought iron pipe suspended in the aera- tion tanks at the activated sludge plant of The Greater Peoria Sanitary and Sewage Disposal District. Peoria. III. Hot water on the inside and sewage on the outside of this pipe make corrosion severe and durable metal necessary. Wrought iron piping in the new Jos. E. Seagram <£ Sons distillery. Louisville. Kentucky. Wrought iron is used in many services where corrosion is an important factor. Wrought iron emptying valve in the river wall of Lock No. 2. Allegheny River. The filling valve is also of wrought iron. Wrought iron skin plates were used on the gates of the new dam built by the U. S. Engineers across the Ohio River at Emsworth. Pa. Wrought iron pipe in the underground hot water heating system owned by the La Porte Gas & Electric Company. La Porte, Indiana. 27 Locomotive coaling station built by the Missouri Pacific Railroad at Myrick, Missouri. The coal bins, hoppers, and chutes are wrought iron. Ornamental wrought iron railings at the new Tower Administration and Library Extension Building at the University of Texas. Austin. Coal spouts of wrought iron in the boiler house at the Carnation Company's plant, Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. Both corrosion and abrasion influence the service life of coal-handling equipment. Sewage sludge lines of 6" and 8" wrought iron pipe at the Dearborn, Michigan, Sewage Treatment Plant. Hand-forged wrought iron fence around the estate of Mr. John Mabee. Tulsa, Oklahoma. Genuine wrought iron has no substitute for tine ornamental work — it offers both beauty of finish and long life. Wrought iron plate housing around the pumping unit of the mechanical screen in the comminutor basin at the Sewage Treatment Plant Pittsfield, Mass. 28 ^i£ Small boat pier constructed of wrought iron on the Wm. B. Stimson estate, Sutton's Island, Maine. > Air process pipe constructed of wrought iron at the Fleisch- mann Yeast plant of Standard Brands, Inc., Peekskill, N. Y. River water supply and return lines, city water and process water lines, and brine lines at this plant are also wrought iron. Bleach boiler, T diam. x 21' long, constructed of wrought iron and recently installed at the L. L. Brown Paper Com- pany plant, Adams, Mass. Wrought iron pipe and tanks are used extensively in the paper industry to minimize the effect of corrosion. - • * ^^^■^ * - — ■ - - • j^^ ■•7 t ■ • i Um Culvert pipe made of corrugated wrought iron sheets being placed in service at Waterbury, Conn. Wrought iron is very desirable for this application because of its high resistance to soil corrosion. The De Paul Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri. In this building the hot and cold water lines, all drainage lines, high and low pressure steam lines, and brine lines were specified wrought iron pipe. Heating lines of wrought iron pipe in underground tunnels at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Durability of pipe means reliability in a heating system. 29 Wrought iron "tell-tale" poles on the Staten Island Rapid Transit Railway. Running wrought iron tubing in an oil well in one of the Oklahoma fields. Salt water, produced with oil and hydrogen sulphide cause rapid corrosion of well equipment. Wrought iron tubing is used extensively to minimize the effect of corrosion. Trash racks, fabricated by welding from wrought iron bars, angles, and channels, for the tunnel intakes at Fort Peck Dam in Montana. Horizontal atmospheric condens- ers, built of wrought iron pipe, at the Chicago plant of a large meat packer. Air cone oning system water nes installed using wrought iron pipe in one of the Rockefeller Center Buildings. New York City Watch-case heaters for curing tire casings at the General Tire <£ Rubber Company. Akron. Ohio. Steam, water, and air lines are wrought iron. Laying a large O.D. wrought iron water line at the Wyandotte, Michigan, Power Plant. 30 Fine residences deserve fine piping systems. The cold water, drainage, and steam heating return lines in this Rochester, N. Y., residence are wrought iron pipe. > Wrought iron pipe installed in the condenser cooling-water lines leading to the cooling tower on the roof of the Reid Ice Cream Company's plant, New York City. The Marquette University High School in Milwaukee has wrought iron pipe in the hot and cold water lines, rain leaders, concealed heating mains, risers, and heating return lines. Boiler breeching constructed of wrought iron plates at the plant of W. F. Schrafft & Sons Corp., Boston. Wrought iron has a long record of service in the handling of corrosive flue gases. 60" O.D. wrought iron pipe, installed as a part of the Big Creek Intercepting Sewer Line at Cleveland, Ohio. This line carries both domestic and strong industrial sewage to the disposal plant. Yeast tubs of welded construction, built of wrought iron plates, for the Hiram Walker and Son's distillery, Peoria, 111. Sewage Gas Collection Domes installed over the gas slots in the digestion tanks at the Angola, Indiana, Sewage Dis- posal Plant. Sewage gas is corrosive and wrought iron is used for domes and connecting piping in many new plants. 31 Fire screens or curtains and sprinkler sys- tem piping of wrought iron plates and pipe beneath the wood deck of the Pennsyl- vania Railroad's Pier No. 28, North River, New York City. Beer cooler at the Pabst Breweries, Milwaukee. Wrought iron pipe is used for this and other refrigeration services. Large wrought iron pipe coils fabricated for one of the large soap manu- facturing plants. Wrought iron is used for many services in the soap industry. Brine piping being installed in the ice Rink, Princeton University. 45,000 feet this floor. skating floor at the Baker Memorial of wrought iron pipe was used in Rudder of wrought iron plate on a tanker owned by one of the large oil companies. Laying wrought iron pipe in the lawn-sprinkling system at the Wyoming State Capitol, Cheyenne. 32 » [BLANK PAGE] CCA INTERNATIONAL A.M COMPANY • PITTSBURGH, PA PLANTS Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania ... 6th and Bingham Streets Ambridge . . . Beaver County, Pennsylvania DIVISION OFFICES Boston, Mass. Consolidated Building Chicago* DL Conway Building Houston. Texas Niels Esperson Building Pittsburgh. Pa. Clark Building New York. N. T. 30 Rockefeller Center St Louis. Mo, Arcade Building Washington. D. C. Shoreham Building Philadelphia, Pa. Girard Trust Building San Francisco, CaliL Bialto Building Seattle, Wash. Smith Tower Building 5M-1247 PrtBted la U. S. A.